October 20, 2022
CryoStasis Technology Explainer
What is CryoStasis core technology thesis?
CryoStasis technology is based on the belief that stored biological material is best preserved by reducing its metabolic rate and ischemic interval. The ischemic interval is the time that cells are deprived of oxygen. The lower the temperature of the cells, the lower the requirement for oxygen due to the decreased metabolic rate. Freezing of water in the cells needs to be avoided due to the damage caused by water crystallization. Cells, tissues and organs can be stored for a prolonged period with minimized ischemic injury if the temperature is as low as possible without freezing. We call this technique Subzero, Unfrozen.
What is CryoStasis Extended Phase (APSU, Ambient Pressure Subzero Unfrozen) storage?
This storage technique assumes ambient pressure. Cell, tissues and organs are stored in CryoStasis media. Organs are perfused. Temperature is decreased at a rapid rate in order to reduce the ischemic interval and metabolic rate. The CryoStasis media uses a proprietary mix of polyhydroxly alcohols, amino acids, saccharides, antioxidants, and other chemicals to provide a stable subzero state in the corresponding media and the stored cell, tissues or organs. This chemical technique is a function of colligative properties and can be witnessed when spreading salt on your front walkway winter ice. The salt is a solute that is hydroscopic and goes into solution easily. The sodium and chlorine ions depress the freezing point of water and salt solution that forms melting the rest of the ice. This storage technique; Subzero Unfrozen, can viably maintain cells, tissues, and organs for 6 days.
What is CryoStasis Enduring Phase (HPSU, High Pressure Subzero Unfrozen) storage?
This storage technique is currently being applied to smaller biologic samples as it involves heavy pressure vessels that can withstand the hydraulic pressure generated and exerted on the cells or tissues. This technique operates at the limits of the phase transition properties of water. The cellular metabolic rate decreases as the pressure increases and temperature drops. Increasing pressure to 210MPa in a closed container allows the temperature of water to be decreased to its lower limit of liquid state at -22°C; thus preventing cell or tissue damage from ice crystals. At this mix of temperature and pressure, the water in the cells becomes the same consistency as cement and the biological material is in suspended animation. The metabolic rate and ischemic insult of biologics at this temperature and pressure is negligible. The CryoStasis media used in this process is proprietary and protects stored cell, tissues or organs. This chemical and physical technique is commonly witnessed with a pressurized beverage that has been cooled below 0°C remains in liquid form until the can is opened and the contents freeze instantly. This storage technique can viably maintain cells and tissues past one year.
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